Moen-Jo-Daro is a world-renowned archaeological site located in the south of Pakistan, its few kilometers away from Larkana city of Sindh province. Before the partition of the subcontinent, the first time R.D. Banerji started professional excavation in 1921-22 A.D under the guidance of British director-general of Archaeology department sir John Martial. After that, Ernest J.H. Mackay excavated this site from 1926 to 1931. Then, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler and Pakistani historian and Archaeologist Ahmad Hasan Dani carried out further excavation in 1945. In the 1980s, German and Italian survey groups led by Michael Jansen and Maurtizio Tosi further worked on this site. Moen-Jo-Daro was designated a UNESCO world heritage site in 1980. After the separation of the subcontinent in 1947, this site became part of Pakistan. This site was excavated many times in history but unfortunately, until only 10% of the whole site could be excavated.
Sir John Martial mentioned in his research paper that, Moen-Jo-Daro is the five thousand years old archaeological site, and the local people of Indus Valley civilization built this city. He further added, the Indus Valley civilization belonged to the period between 3250 B.C and 2750 B.C. It is the period when the Egyptians, Babylonians, and Mesopotamian civilizations flourished.
During the excavation, archaeologist divided this site into two main portions (1) Citadel (2) Lower city for scientific research. By the excavation of different periods, many old and anxious archaeological artifacts like wonderful pottery, different types of jewelry, 1200 different types of seals, stone weapons, different statues of the dancing girl, mother goddess and king priest, children toys, different types of art and Budhist Stupa monastery were found from the excavation of Moen-Jo-Daro. Archaeologist did not find any evidence of social classes, temples, palaces, royal tombs and forts among the ruins of Moen-Jo-Daro like other ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egyptian. Indus Valley civilization has been declared as a weaponless and peaceful civilization of the world. Unfortunately, even today experts are not able to decipher the mystery of Indus script.
British historian and Archaeologist V. Gordon Childe wrote in his book titled what happened in history: “Indus Valley civilization is the world oldest, peaceful, and unique civilization, there was no evidence of exploitation of workers like in Mesopotamian or Egyptian civilizations where thousands of labors were forced to build temples and pyramids”.
If we look at all the discoveries of this site, we can say when people of the world were lived in caves and deserted areas, they had no permanent residence, they were unaware of proper dressing pattern, and standard lifestyle, in that period people of Indus Valley founded the first remarkable and civilized civilization of the world. Peace was the powerful tool of this civilization.
People of Indus Valley civilization were very intelligent and hardworking; they founded such civilization that was advanced in whole fields of life. They cultivated different crafts like wheat, barley, pulses, oilseeds, and cotton. They started to use of domestication of different types of animals like chicken, sheep, cattle, and other animals. People of Moen-Jo-Daro were first to develop a uniform system of measuring.
Archaeologist did not find any weapon from the site. People of Moen-Jo-Daro were connected to other contemporary civilizations by trade. Sir John Martial wrote in his book titled Moen-Jo-Daro and Indus civilization, “Cotton was the invention of Indus Valley civilization, and people of other contemporary civilizations had purchased the cotton from the Indus Valley civilization.
In the world, first-time people of Indus Valley founded the best judicial society. People of Moen-Jo-Daro were first engineers of architecture because they built the mud-bricks, and with the help of mud-bricks they built their homes by pure geometric rules.
Moen-Jo-Daro is the rich heritage of Sindh and historical treasure for the entire world. The current condition of this site is worst. This site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration. Historians and archaeologist raised their voice for the protection and further excavation of this site by national and international level time to time. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the government to protect this treasure of history and government should have to start the excavation research work for the further remaining unexcavated parts of site.
The decline of Indus Valley civilization is one big mystery, historians and archaeologist mentioned the different opinion about the decline of Moen-Jo-Daro. The majority of archaeologist said that a series of massive floods, earthquakes, and migration are the main reasons for the declination of this great civilization of the world.
Tourism is one of the leading sources of economy in the world today. In the world, there are Seven Wonders of the World (1) The Great wall of China 700 B.C.E (2) Christ the Redeemer Statue 1931 C.E (3) Macho Picchu 1450 C.E (4) Chichen Itza 600 C.E (5) The Roman Colosseum 80 C.E (6) Taj Mahal 1643 C.E (7) Great Pyramid of Giza 2560 B.C.E. If we look at the some examples of tourism-based economy in world, we will find amazing facts and figures. Pyramids of Egypt attract to approximately 12 million tourists, and government of Egypt earns millions of Egyptian pounds annually. The Great Wall of China made by the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huan, more than 2300 years ago. Approximately 10 millions of people visited this site annually and China earned billions of Yuan by tourism-based economy every year. Another world heritage Taj Mahal attracts 3 to 4 million tourists annually and India earns millions of Indian rupees.
In other side, Pakistani society faces different types of crisis including corruption, religious terrorism and other economical crisis since independence. This state failed to preserve cultural heritage and failed to promote tourism industry. Moen-Jo-Daro is the oldest civilization from all mentioned world heritage sites. This is in Sindh region and Sindh is the historical rich region, all the historical sites of Sindh are in worst condition; especially the five thousand years old archaeological site of Moen-Jo-Daro is in very worst condition. Culture, tourism, and antiquities department of Sindh government failed to protect this historical site. There is no any boundary line to this site for protection, rainwater, violent vandalism destroyed the ruins of this site, and there is the lack of basic facilities. Government of Sindh is not serious to preserve this site, therefore limited funding for preservation of heritage issued in different periods for government which were insufficient. Heritage of Sindh is our identity and it is our responsibility to preserve and protect the treasure of our history.