Sindh is the historical and cultural rich region; thousands of archaeological sites of Sindh are worth visiting places. Bhambhore is one of them, the old name of Bhambhore was Debal and it was built by Alexander the Great in 325 B.C.This archaeological site is located approximately 65 kilometers east of Karachi in Thatta Highway between Dhabeji and Gharo Sindh, Pakistan.
Archaeologists divide the history of Bhambhore into three periods, (1) Scytho-Parithan period, starting from the 1st century B.C to 2nd Century AD (2) The Hindu-Buddhist period started from 2nd century AD to 8th Century AD (3) and the Muslim era started from the 8th century AD to ending in 13th century AD. Ruins of this city are only the source of its history because there is no written record of early history of Bhambhore found anywhere.
Archaeological site of Bhambhore was excavated first time by the guidance of General Cunningham in 1910. Henry Cousens and then N.G Majumdar from the Archeological Survey of (British) India continued his work. After independence, Leslie Adcock of the Pakistan Department of Archeology worked for a short time on this site. After that, Pakistani archeologist Dr F.A. Khan excavated this site from 1958 to 1965. After long time, Archaeological department of Sindh started excavation in the year of 2013 and 2014 with the collaboration of Archaeological team of France and Italy.
Throughout all the excavations, Archaeologist find out different types of artifacts some of them are; pendants in terracotta and semi-precious stones, iron objects, traditional Jewelry, crockery, different types of toys for children and different types of handmade pottery, many skeletons, currency coins of both Hindu and Muslim periods. Evidence of historical Mosque for Muslims and Temple for Hindus are clear and it was the symbol of peace and harmony in Sindh. It has been certified that in the ancient Bhambhore both Hindus and Muslims were living together. If we look at the road networking, drainage system and town planning of this city signify the intelligence of people of Bhambhore. On the bases of history and discovered artifacts of this city, we can say that, Bhambhore was a modern city of history. Bhambhore is famous for the true love tale of Sasui and Punho also, that belongs to the Soomra period (1024-1351CE). Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai mentioned their love story in his poetry.
The Archaeological Department of Pakistan established a Museum of Bhambhore, the foundation stone was laid by Mr. Mumtaz Hassan, Government of Pakistan on 21st August 1960. In May 2010, this archaeological site was handed over to culture department of Sindh government. In March 2012, the Culture Department of Government of Sindh organized the first International Conference on Bhambhore, where different experts and archaeologists presented their research papers on the history of Bhambhore.
If we look at the destruction causes of Bhambhore, this historical city was destroyed by many attacks of invaders in history. Henry Cousens wrote in his book that, Bhambhore was destroyed in the year of 1250 AD.
This historical city was situated on the bank of River Indus. There are three main reasons of destruction of Bhambhore. First reason was the attacks of invaders, according to many historians, during the mid-13th century, Jalal al-Din Khwarzim invaded Sindh, and devastated and conquered many coastal areas of Sindh, Bhambhore was one of them. Second reason was the changing course of River Indus and third was the violent earthquake.
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