Human population of the world has been distributed in different nations, groups, sub groups, and communities on the bases of different religions, cultures, and languages. All human societies of the world are different to one another on the bases of religious and social festivals, social activities, marriage, and death ceremonies. Every community has different rules, regulations, norms, values, clothing fashion and belief system. Shi’a is the second largest sect of Islam. Shi’a people conduct Azadari during the month of Muharam in the remembrance of supreme sacrifice of Imam Hussain (a.s) for the protection of Islam.
Shi’a scholar Abdul Kareem Mushtaq wrote in his book 14-Masale: “Mourn processions, Azadari, Zuljinaah, Taboot (coffin), Jhula (cradle) and all things which are part of our Azadari is not against the Islamic law. Because we do not worship these things, we arrange these things only in the pure affection for the supreme sacrifice of Imam Hussain and his companions for the protection of Islam in Karbala”.
Tazia is the main part of Shi’a Azadari. Tazia is a resemblance (Shabeeh) of tomb of Hazrat Imam Hussain (a.s). Tazia made by different things like, gold, steel, wood and so on. Tazia is being carried on a cart during the mourn procession; lot of changes has been taken place in shape and design of tazia by time, one grave, one cradle, and one tomb (Gumbaz) are the fundamental parts of every tazia, the shape and design varies. There are two, three and four storey tazia in Sindh that depends on the choice of manufacturer.
Mirza Imam Ali Baig wrote in his book “Sindh-ji-Azadari” on the page number 372, “Practice of Tazia was started by the King Taimor in Sindh”. If we look at the history of Sindh, Azadari had increased during the dynasties of Sama and Kalhora, in that period practice of Tazia taking was started. First, Tazia was made by pure clay of river Indus. During the passage of time, artistic manufacturing work of Tazia is being popular in Sindh. Shi’a people are emotionally attached to Azadari. Many historical Tazias are preserved by Shi’a people are available in different Imam Bargahs of Hyderabad.
Shi’a scholar Abdul Sattar Dars said during interview that, in Hyderabad, there are 308 pirs, of which 50 pirs are pre-partition and 258 pirs build after the separation of subcontinent, these are those pirs, which have been registered by survey of azadar rabta committee Hyderabad, but many pirs are not registered yet, there are one thousand pirs in Hyderabad.
There are 15 old Tazias are preserved in different imam bargahs of Hyderabad. Names of those imam Bargahs are: (1) Qadam gah Hazrat Ali (2) Wadhan-jo-pir (3) Imam Ali Shah Sheerazi-jo-pir Lajpat road (4) Imam Ali Shah Bukhari-jo-pir (5) Ellicott-jo-Pir Pakka Qila (6) Yaqoob Kaasai-jo-pir station road (7) Bhoochal Shah-jo-Pir khahi road (8) Kamil Shah-jo-pir Tando wali Muhammad (9) Burdiyun-jo-pir Tando wali Muhammad (10) Syed Sabit Ali Shah Karbalai-jo-Pir Heer Aabad (11) Mehar Ali Shah-jo-pir Lajpat road (12) Meeran ji Imam Bargah Latifabad #4 (13) Imam Bargah of Tando Aga (14) Juman Shah jo Pir Sarafa Bazar (15) Tando Jahaniyan-jo-pir.
Wadhan-jo-pir is the manufacturing center point of Alam, Tazia and Jhula by special wood. Skillful carpenters of wadhan-jo-pir manufacture Tazia by different parts, after that those parts join to each other. Three to four months is the time required for manufacture the large Tazia.
Wood made Tazia has lengthy manufacturing process. First of all wood is being engraved by electronic machines, then according to design carpenter engrave the wood by drawing frames, after that carpenter handover the wood pieces to color artists. Tazia is being manufactured in different parts. First, carpenter sketches the drawing and engrave those wood plates, after that he started work of painting.
Muhammad Ismail is a resident of Chhotiki Ghitti Hyderabad. He is the master of making bangle made Tazia. His father Muhammad Hussain and Grandfather Ghulam Hussain started making to that type of Tazia 50 years ago, on the 9th and 10th Muharam, they take out this Tazia for pilgrimage. Every year they manufacture new Tazia. When I asked about the expenses, Muhammad Ismail said during the preparation of one Tazia 15 to 20 thousand rupees needed.
Silver made Tazia is very costly. The price of silver made Tazia is in Lacs. Gold is very expensive in the world. Shi’a people are emotionally attached to Azadari, they have been started manufactured Tazias by gold. In the Siri Ghat Hyderabad, there is a Pir of Maai Salma, every year, gold made Tazia procession brings out. Women of Bazar-e-Husun manufactured this Tazia. Gold made Tazias are very beautiful and expensive. In Pakistan Chaniot is an old manufacturing center of Alam, Tazia, Jhula and other things. Gold made Tazias of Chaniot are famous. In Chaniot, gold made Ttazia procession takes out on the 10th Muharam. These Tazis are so heavy and large. Art of these Tazias is worth seeing.
Every type of Tazia has different manufacturing process. That depends on its nature, and type. For wood made Tazia, different types of colored papers, glue, small pieces of wood, and some pieces of cloth, painting colors, and many other things are being required. Tazia manufacturing expenses depend on its type, shape, size and design. Like that, repairing expenses of gold made Tazias are high as compare to wood made Tazias. Two to five lacs is an annual repairing expense of gold made Tazia and one to three Lacs is an annual repairing expense of large wood made Tazia.